Paul Neumann (born 13 June 1875 in Vienna – died 9 February 1932) was an Austrian open water swimmer and physician who competed at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens and became the first Austrian gold medalist.
Neumann was Jewish, and born in Vienna. He immigrated to the U.S. after the 1896 Olympic Games. There, he became a physician and earned a Ph.D. in philosophy.
- He won the 1892 Austrian National River Championship.
- In 1894, he won the 500m at the Austrian Championships.
- In 1896 Neumann travelled to Athens and competed in 1896 Summer Olympics. There was only 3 competitors for the 500m which Neumann won in a time of 8:12.6 minutes nearly two minutes faster than his rivals.
- Neumann also entered the 1200m freestyle which was straight after his victory which is why he didn't finish the race.
- In 1897 while competing for the Chicago Athletics Association he set world records at 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-mile races.
- In 1897, he won the American and Canadian Freestyle Swimming Championships.
- In 1984, Neumann was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame.
- In 1996, he was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame.